Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 10;650(1):120-9.
Activation of p38 MAPK by damnacanthal mediates apoptosis in SKHep 1 cells through the DR5/TRAIL and TNFR1/TNF-α and p53 pathways.
Lin FL, Hsu JL, Chou CH, Wu WJ, Chang CI, Liu HJ.

Damnacanthal from noni fruit interrupts the growth cycle of adenocarcinoma cells (SKHep 1) and aids apoptosis via activation of p38 MAPK and mitochondrion-mediated caspase-dependent pathways. (original abstract available at