Radiology.2012 Jul;264(1):59-67.
Effect of antioxidants on X-ray-induced γ-H2AX foci in human blood lymphocytes: preliminary observations.

Kuefner MA, Brand M, Ehrlich J, Braga L, Uder M, Semelka RC.

Preincubation of whole blood samples from 25 healthy volunteers with antioxidant micronutrients reduced the number of irradiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes (immune cells). Oral pretreatment with these antioxidants also significantly reduced irradiation-induced DNA damage of lymphocytes in whole blood samples from 17 healthy adults. In blood samples collected 60 minutes after ingestion of the antioxidants, there was a 58% reduction in DNA damage. Micronutrients provided protection to immune system cells.
(original abstract available at